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Чехов I was walking through the alley and thinking about cherry jam. Три недели как мы не видались. About an hour or so later I was sent for and found Mary Gerrard unconscious.

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We had wonderful weather. Он сидел в тюрьме три года. Я попал в институт, когда совсем стемнело. A sound of a piano is heard in the adjoining room.


We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders.

Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced.

From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable.

As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

Vocabulary learning, viewed broadly, is fundamental to our initial and continued learning in almost every domain. We need to know the language, so to speak, not simply in the sense of learning a first or second language but also in the sense of learning the vocabulary that characterizes some field of study, such as biology or the law.

Our primary concern as teachers, for example, may be increasing students' higher-level understanding of concepts in some domain and increasing their ability to generalize those concepts to new situations where they are relevant, but achieving those goals rests on students having acquired the basic vocabulary of terms and labels in that domain.

Perhaps understandably, then, vocabulary learning has often been examined in different ways by memory researchers and by language researchers. Memory researchers have frequently examined vocabulary learning using materials that are selected to ensure that the participants know little, typically nothing, of the to-be-learned language, such as having college students learn English translations of Swahili words, before the experiment.

The goals of such experiments are to understand more about processes such as response learning, stimulus learning, how forward and backward associations are formed, how materials should be sequenced and tested in order to optimize long-term retention, and so forth see.

On the other hand, research on language processing has tended to examine the earliest processes during comprehension and in planning speech but typically not the later consequences of those processes.

Language researchers have also embraced and tried to understand the complexities of cross-language processes, complexities that have typically been avoided by memory researchers. Alice Healy has been a counterexample to the preceding generalization about the differing approaches of memory researchers and language researchers. One of her distinct contributions is that she, together with her students and colleagues, has attempted to bring together these differing research traditions ,.

In this article we attempt to pursue that effort by examining whether and how certain difficulties that have been shown to increase long-term retention and transfer can be incorporated into vocabulary and language learning.

Learning, Performance, and Introducing Difficulties A problem teachers and trainers confront—and a problem we all confront in managing our own learning—is that conditions of instruction or practice that make performance improve rapidly often fail to support long-term retention and transfer, whereas conditions of instruction that appear to create difficulties for the learner, slowing the rate of apparent learning, often optimize long-term retention and transfer.

To the extent that we assume that current performance is a valid index of learning, we become susceptible to choosing less effective conditions of learning or practice over more effective conditions. Alice Healy, together with her students and colleagues, was among the first to emphasize that creating certain types of difficulties can improve learning and slow forgetting, especially in the domain of learning foreign-language vocabulary.

It is important to emphasize that creating difficulties for ourselves or for those we are responsible for instructing is hardly a universal good. In real-world contexts, many, perhaps most, of the difficulties we create are undesirable. The difficulties introduced by variation, spacing, interleaving, and so forth are desirable because responding to those difficulties successfully engages the very processes that support learning, comprehension, and remembering.

Even those difficulties, aside from difficulties that are universally undesirable, become undesirable if the learner, by virtue of prior knowledge and current cues, is not equipped to respond to them successfully.

There is much to be said about the role of creating difficulties, desirable and undesirable, in vocabulary learning, whether in one's own primary language or in learning foreign-language vocabulary.

We conclude by speculating that bilingualism imposes difficulties that are desirable in quite general ways. Testing Versus Restudying It is common to think that the function of testing is assessment, but in recent years the role of testing as a pedagogical tool has received increasing emphasis for a review, see. Information and procedures that are retrieved in response to a test of some kind not only become more retrievable in the future than they would have been without such a test, but they even become more retrievable than if they had been presented again for restudy.

The advantages of testing over restudying tend not to be apparent in the short term, however. Typically, restudying appears more productive than testing during the learning process or shortly thereafter, whereas the advantages of testing over restudying become apparent only after a delay see ; ; ;. It is important to add that the advantage of restudying over initial testing when retention is measured after a short retention interval is, in a sense, artificial: It arises not because restudying is ever more effective than retrieving, even at a short delay, but because restudying strengthens all of the to-be-remembered items, whereas initial testing strengthens only the items successfully retrieved.

In the context of vocabulary learning, for example, had participants learn English translations of Swahili words e. All participants went through alternating cycles during which to-be-learned pairs were either studied or tested, but depending on the condition a participant was in, individual pairs were dropped from further study cycles, dropped from subsequent test cycles, dropped from both, or not dropped from either.

In each of the four conditions, every one of the 40 to-be-learned translations was gotten correct at least once by every participant, and the participants in each condition, when asked at the end of the study—test cycles, predicted that they would be able to recall about half of the translations when tested in a week. In fact, though, performance a week later was about 80% in the two conditions in which pairs remained in the test cycles but only about 35% when pairs were dropped from subsequent test cycles.

Amazingly, once a translation was recalled correctly, that pair could be dropped from subsequent study cycles with impunity, so to speak, but dropping that Swahili word from subsequent test cycles decreased long-term recall drastically. Errorless Versus Errorful Learning Given the power of retrieval as a learning event, one legitimate concern about using testing to improve vocabulary learning is that when we do so the errors produced during testing will themselves be learned.

Recent evidence suggests, however, that generating errors, especially errors made in attempting to predict or anticipate a to-be-remembered answer or association, can promote rather than impair learning. That such generation attempts, even when they are assured of being incorrect, can improve subsequent memory for the correct response has drawn a great deal of recent interest ; ; ; ; ; ;. An experimental paradigm introduced by has triggered much of this interest. The participants' task in this paradigm is to learn weakly associated paired associates, such as whale— mammal, for purposes of a final cued recall test whale:????

On some trials, such pairs are studied intact, whereas on other trials participants are asked to try to predict the to-be-remembered response given only the cue word. The basic result is that trying to predict the to-be-remembered target improves later cued recall of the target, even though the pairs are selected so that the participants' predictions are almost always wrong, and even though the time taken to try to anticipate the correct response is time taken away from the time to study the correct response i.

Participants say that studying a pair intact helps them learn the pair better than does first trying to anticipate the to-be-learned response , however, a finding that is consistent with many other findings in demonstrating how easy it is to get fooled as to the conditions that do and do not optimize retention. One interpretation of these findings is that the generation task leads to semantic activation of the cue word—for example, that trying to predict the to-be-remembered associate of whale activates the semantic network associated with whale, which then facilitates linking mammal to whale.

With unrelated word pairs, for example, there is no benefit of generating a prediction error ;. One might expect, then, that anticipatory error generation would not facilitate vocabulary learning, either of words one does not know in one's native language or of cross-language vocabulary learning.

However, an interesting and provocative series of experiments by suggests that error generation might indeed facilitate such vocabulary learning. In two experiments, had English-speaking participants learn words they did not know.

During the learning phase, a to-be-learned word and its translation were shown intact for 13 s, or the to-be-learned word was shown by itself for 8 s before the correct translation was shown for 5 s. During the 8 s a word was shown without the translation, participants, depending on the experimental condition, had to try to predict guess at the correct translation or choose from four alternatives.

The results from the experiment that involved learning Euskara words are shown in ; the same pattern of results was found in the experiment that involved learning unusual English words.

As is apparent in , generating an erroneous prediction led to the best later recall of a given translation but was accompanied by participants predicting that it would lead to the worst later recall.

Actual top panel and predicted bottom panel final test performance as a function of whether the English translation of a Euskara word was studied, was predicted before being studied, or was chosen from 4 alternatives before being studied data from... The results shown in are especially difficult to explain, given that no preexisting associations to the Euskara words existed in the participants' memories. Their proposal is that errorful generation contributes to a focusing of attention that is not as present in the study-only condition, but a more complete answer is likely to come from ongoing research.

In the meantime, the results in , together with the results of Potts and Shanks's experiment using unknown English words, adds to the evidence that difficulties and errors can contribute to vocabulary learning, whether in one's native language or in learning a new language.

Comparing the Two Approaches to Vocabulary Learning As noted earlier, two different research traditions have examined vocabulary learning, one as a vehicle to reveal general properties of learning and memory and the other to examine the way in which the lexicon develops in conjunction with other language processes. Adult speakers know many thousands of words, and the first task for second-language L2 learners is typically to acquire vocabulary in the new language.

The approach described in the first part of this article provides a framework for understanding how initial conditions of study that are more difficult, induce errors, and require greater elaborative processing may benefit learning in the long term. In contrast, language processing studies tend to catch the earliest moments of comprehension on the fly and to examine the way in which that initial understanding maps onto spoken production.

But it is rare that language processing studies consider the enduring consequences of processing for later memory. Studies of vocabulary learning from a language processing perspective also tend to examine the performance of actual learners who are attempting to acquire a second language to some degree of proficiency. Where these two approaches come together is in training studies of word learning. In the next section we compare the evidence from these two approaches.

A unique contribution Alice Healy has made to the field is to suggest that they may be providing converging evidence about the same underlying learning mechanisms. Here we illustrate how that may be the case. The Role of Contextual Interference reported a vocabulary learning experiment in which native English speakers with no preexisting knowledge of French studied translation pairs from English to French or from French to English.

When tested, the participants were required to type the response word. At the end of the Day 1 training, participants were tested in the practiced direction; that is, they had to produce the English translation if they had been given French cues during Day 1 practice, or they had to give the French translation if they had been given English cues during Day 1 practice.

Not surprisingly, as shown in , the French-to-English direction produced better performance on the test administered immediately after the Day 1 practice trials.

From the perspective of paired-associate learning, the effect of study direction reveals the relative importance of encoding new information and attaching it to existing knowledge, compared with the relative difficulty of producing a novel word in the new language.

That is, it was harder for participants to produce the novel French word when cued with the English translation than to recognize it and produce the translation in English when cued with the French word. Immediate and 1-week delayed performance as a function of translation direction English to French or French to English during Session 1. On the immediate test, participants were tested in the direction practiced during training. On the delayed test... When, however, the participants returned a week later and were tested again, either in the direction they practiced a week earlier or in the opposite direction, found benefits of having learned in the more difficult English-to-French direction.

As shown in , performance on the delayed test, plotted as a function of the translation direction during Day 1 training and averaged over the direction tested a week later, was better given the more difficult practice a week earlier. When performance on the delayed test was broken down by whether the test direction matched or mismatched the trained direction a week earlier, Schneider et al.

The pattern of results is consistent with an interpretation that the harder-to-learn condition, from English to French, imposed a desirable difficulty that resulted in long-term benefits to memory and retention.

They reported a translation asymmetry, with shorter translation latencies when bilinguals translated into the first language, the L1, than into the second language, the L2. The result resembles the cuing effect in accuracy reported by Schneider et al. Critically, demonstrated that only translation into the L2, the forward direction of translation, was influenced by the semantic composition of the list of words to be translated.

Translation from the L2 into the L1, the backward direction of translation, appeared to be immune from the influence of the meaning of the words that were translated. When bilinguals named words in each language, simply speaking the name of the word without translating, they were slower to name words in the L2 than in L1. Mean translation latencies for Dutch—English bilinguals to translate words in each direction of translation when word lists were semantically categorized or randomly mixed data from Despite the greater difficulty in speaking the L2, the word naming data showed no differential effects of the semantics, suggesting that the effect observed in translation reflected the mapping between word forms, not the greater difficulty per se in producing the L2.

The differential semantic effect in translation may be a processing analog to the sort of contextual interference described earlier in regard to memory experiments that have shown that interleaving, a more difficult study condition than blocking, produces benefits to learning for reviews, see ;.

The same result has been reported in other speeded processing tasks in which a single word is required for production in contexts in which semantic blocking increases the competition between the lexical candidates from which a selection must be made.

Importantly, an incidental recall task at the end of the translation experiment in Kroll and Stewart revealed a significant effect of semantic blocking for recall in the difficult forward direction of translation from L1 to L2 but no effect in the easier backward direction of translation from L2 to L1.

In effect, recall was best for the condition that produced the greatest processing costs in translation. Like , also included a manipulation of semantic blocking to determine whether contextual interference might produce a desirable difficulty in learning. Unlike Kroll and Stewart, they did not find more of an effect of blocking in the more difficult cuing condition but instead in the easier condition, where the cue in French required a response in English.

At later relearning, that difference was absent. In Schneider et al. Differences in design and in the timing of study and test in the two studies may also account for the observed effects and the small contribution of semantic blocking in the Schneider et al.

Also, viewed more broadly from a contextual interference standpoint, blocking by semantic category may involve a fundamental tradeoff: On one hand, the pool of possible responses is reduced by blocking; on the other hand, correct responses must be selected from among more potent competitors.

The relative roles of those two factors may well have differed in the two studies. Critically, for present purposes there were effects of language direction in both studies, with the more difficult conditions producing better performance in a later test. Accounting for Asymmetries in Bilingual Translation proposed the revised hierarchical model RHM to account for the asymmetries obtained in bilingual translation. The model, shown in , assumes that when adults initially learn new L2 words, they attach those words to the language system via associative links to their respective L1 translations.

Because adult learners have an existing L1 lexicon and know the meanings of the L1 words, they can exploit the mappings between words and concepts for the L1 in learning the new L2 words. Therefore, the L2-to-L1 direction of translation is hypothesized to be lexically mediated.

The process of lexical mediation is another manifestation of the more general principle of transfer of new information to old information that is seen not only in learning experiments in the lab but also in studies of actual second-language learning for all levels of language processing, including lexicon, grammar, and phonology.

When words are presented in the L1 to be translated into the L2, the semantics will be rapidly activated. However, the route from meaning to the L2 word, the process that is called lexicalization in models of language production, is hypothesized to be slow and error prone because there will be some concepts that are not known in the L2 and because those that are known will be only weakly associated to their respective meanings until the speaker is highly proficient in both languages.

In this account, only translation from L1 to L2, in the forward direction, will be influenced by a semantic manipulation such as the category of words to be translated, whereas lexical mediation, from the L2 to L1, in the backward direction, can be achieved without semantic access.

The revised hierarchical model adapted from The predictions of the RHM have been tested and debated, particularly with respect to the role of lexical mediation for a recent review, see. Critically, for present purposes the model provides an account of language processing that converges closely with the associative learning explanation for the results.

In each case, the condition that was more difficult for learners and for proficient bilinguals, requiring production of the weaker new language or L2 word, produced greater benefits to later memory and more evidence of conceptual processing than the condition that was easier, requiring only recognition of the L2 word and production in L1.

In effect, production into the L2 created a desirable difficulty with respect to learning and memory. Desirable difficulties can reflect the imposition of encoding strategies that require longer processing times, greater conceptual elaboration, or an increased presence of erroneous responses during learning.

But they can also arise from strategies that are imposed by learners themselves, as a function of their experience, what call self-regulated learning. In the next section we describe another experiment on vocabulary learning that we believe provides a second illustration of how the mechanisms that account for learning and memory may converge with evidence from language processing. Domain-General Effects of Bilingualism The recent literature is filled with accounts of how bilingual language experience may produce consequences for domain-general cognition see , for a review.

The evidence on language processing suggests that the bilingual's two languages are always active and competing. Most bilinguals are more proficient in one language than the other, typically the native language.

The claim is that to become a proficient bilingual, it is necessary to learn to regulate the control of the two languages so that the weaker of the two languages can be used without intrusion from the stronger language see , for a recent review of the evidence on cross-language activation. Of key relevance to the present issues, the constant requirement for bilinguals to control the two languages has been hypothesized to produce a range of consequences to cognition that extend beyond language use.

Much of the recent work on these consequences of bilingualism is focused on executive function and on the ways in which the brain networks that support executive function are tuned in response to the ways in which the two languages are used ;. We return to this issue at the end of the article to consider how multiple language use and bilingualism itself may produce desirable difficulties.

However, it is important to note that very little of this research has addressed the issue of new learning or the ways in which the use of a second language may change the sort of regulatory strategies people bring to new learning contexts. The few experiments that have investigated the consequences of bilingualism for vocabulary learning have produced results that are largely positive, with evidence that bilinguals are better new language learners than are monolinguals when confronted with new foreign language vocabulary.

What is unclear is whether the reported advantage is simply another reflection of the more general consequences of bilingualism for cognition or whether bilingualism produces specific consequences for learning that reflect the life experience bilinguals have in regulating the use of the two languages. The study asked whether the bilingual word learning advantage depended on learning the new words via the native or dominant L1. If bilingualism confers advantages to executive function that extend to new learning, then bilinguals might be expected to reveal learning advantages that are broad in scope and not dependent on the specific way that they themselves learned the L2.

However, if the new learning engages the mechanisms that were active during initial learning of the L2 or that are used to enable regulation of the two languages, then the advantage might be specifically tied to that aspect of language experience.

Studies of language comprehension and language production show that bilinguals appear to inhibit alternatives in the more dominant L1 to enable them to process information in the less dominant L2 ; ; ;. Critically, it is the L1 that is inhibited. The weaker L2 does not require inhibition to the same degree.

The hypothesis that Bogulski and Kroll tested is that bilinguals will be advantaged when learning new foreign language vocabulary but only when learning via the L1, the language with which they have regulatory experience. Of interest is the fact that almost all past studies of the bilingual advantage in word learning have examined learning via the L1, so it is impossible from the past literature to determine whether the advantage is a general consequence of bilingualism or a more specific effect reflecting the fact that bilinguals learn to regulate their L1 to enable proficient use of the L2.

One group was native English speakers highly proficient in Spanish as the L2 English—Spanish bilinguals , another was native Spanish speakers highly proficiency in English as the L2 Spanish—English bilinguals , and a third group was native Chinese speakers highly proficient in English as the L2 Chinese—English bilinguals. The three bilingual groups were compared with monolingual speakers of English on a set of word learning tasks using Dutch as the foreign language that was equally unfamiliar for monolinguals and bilinguals alike.

At study, all participants were shown a Dutch word followed by its English translation. The task was to name the word in English as soon as they judged that they had studied the word adequately. The task was not speeded, but they were required to name the English translation within 5 s. They were then tested on a translation recognition task in which they had to judge whether a Dutch and English word were translation equivalents and then returned to the lab for a separate testing session in which they restudied the Dutch words and then performed a Dutch lexical decision task in which they judged whether a letter string was a word in Dutch.

Across the experiment, all participants studied the words three times, twice in an initial session and once more in a second session. Neither the native Spanish or native Chinese speakers who studied the new words via English, their L2, produced an advantage. Critically, the performance at study revealed an unexpected difference across the groups of learners.

The English—Spanish bilinguals who later revealed the word learning advantage appeared to have adopted a strategy during initial study of the new words that was slow and strategic.

These bilinguals were slower than the monolingual learners by hundreds of milliseconds, although both groups were native English speakers and closely matched on other dimensions.

These data are shown in. One hypothesis may simply be that this group of English—Spanish bilinguals was particularly slow. However, a comparison of the same groups on a picture naming task, used for the purpose of assessing English proficiency, revealed identical naming latencies, suggesting that the English—Spanish bilinguals were not slow in processing overall but only selectively slow when learning new words. The hypothesis is that the bilingual learners have experience in learning how to inhibit their L1 even when required to use the L1 to respond.

Although English is the L1 for the monolingual speakers, they presumably have little experience in having to inhibit the L1 because it is their only functional language. Likewise, the two other bilingual groups were producing English at study as their L2 and have little reason to inhibit English. It appears that in the absence of this inhibitory pattern, there is no bilingual advantage in word learning, suggesting that the effect is specific to the conditions of learning rather than a more general cognitive consequence of bilingualism.

In the context of the present discussion, these data can be interpreted as revealing a desirable difficulty but one imposed by the nature of self-regulation rather than by the conditions of study. Does Bilingualism Impose Desirable Difficulties? In the media, there has been widespread recent coverage attesting to the benefits of multiple language use for the mind and the brain.

A particularly provocative claim is that a lifetime of bilingualism protects aging brains from both normal and pathological declines associated with cognitive aging and with disease ;. Perhaps the most dramatic finding is that bilinguals diagnosed with Alzheimer's-type dementia appear to present with symptoms 4 to 5 years later than their monolingual counterparts. The hypothesis is that bilingualism gives the brain a workout, tuning the brain networks that are responsible for cognitive control and conflict resolution ;.

Experience in resolving the competition that normally occurs in regulating the use of two languages to enable fluent performance in each is thought to provide compensatory protection in the presence of aging or disease.

In the case of Alzheimer's, there is striking evidence that when bilinguals present with symptoms, not only are they older than monolinguals, but their brains are also more diseased than monolinguals presenting with the same symptoms , suggesting a longer compensatory period during which the bilinguals were apparently able to cope with their symptoms.

How do these remarkable benefits to the mind and brain arise from a life of bilingual language experience? The general account is the one mentioned earlier. Studies of bilingual language processing show that when bilinguals listen to speech, read, and plan speech in each of their two languages, the language not in use is active and competing for selection.

The bilingual has been described as a mental juggler, constantly negotiating competing demands across the two languages. What is notable is that the observed effects of cross-language activation and their competitive consequences appear to be present at every level of language processing, from the words that are spoken to the grammar that is selected.

Yet bilinguals rarely make errors of language, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms to which we have alluded provide an elegant means of cognitive control. In this sense, the bilingual experience is one of negotiating a set of difficulties that may not be desirable in any sort of obvious way at the point of learning or using language but that provide deep benefits to cognition across the life span. In reviews of the cognitive consequences of bilingualism , consideration is given to outcomes that appear to be positive and beneficial, such as more efficient resolution of cognitive conflict.

But not all consequences of bilingualism are positive, and in the context of discussing desirable difficulties it is useful to consider whether the documented costs associated with multiple language use might really be desirable difficulties in disguise. Bilinguals are often slower to speak, even in their native language, than monolingual speakers of the same native language.

They also produce fewer exemplars in a verbal fluency task than monolinguals and have a larger number of tip-of-the-tongue experiences than monolinguals. Bilingual children also have smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers.

The evidence for a bilingual deficit in verbal processing has been interpreted in two different ways in the past literature. If all humans have only 24 hours each day but some use more than one language, then each of the languages will have lower frequency relative to monolingual speakers. From this perspective, bilinguals will always be running a deficit, even in their native language. The alternative is that the two languages are always competing and that there are costs engaged by the mechanisms needed to resolve that competition see , for a detailed comparison of these two accounts.

The competition-for-selection account has the advantage of providing a basis on which costs may translate into benefits. Each opportunity to resolve cross-language competition may extract costs that draw on executive function and working memory resources, but the need to engage in the process of conflict resolution may itself confer benefits to other processes.

Bilinguals may learn something more general about resolving competition during learning and problem solving that monolinguals simply do not face to the same degree. Recent studies of both behavior and brain function ; show that bilinguals are more efficient in resolving conflict than monolinguals. They need less brain activation to get the same job done, and they are faster to inhibit distracting alternatives.

Although a great deal of research remains to be performed to determine precisely how problems in language processing map onto their respective consequences, it is appealing to think that the bilingual disadvantages that have been mentioned are the other side of the same coin.

Only when we challenge language processing do the subsequent benefits to cognition later appear. Those benefits may be subtle in young adulthood, but they appear to be robust as people age and under conditions of reduced cognitive resources.

Beyond Vocabulary Learning: Some Concluding Comments We end by paying tribute to Alice Healy, whose work has shown us from the start that we need to attend to all these processes: those that can be examined on the fly as they unfold in real time and those that extend over longer periods of time and perhaps over the entire life span.

The research on vocabulary learning that Alice and her students first used as a laboratory paradigm to investigate learning and memory has created a set of deep questions that are broad in scope and suggest an exciting new research agenda. At the heart of that agenda is the recognition that learning, memory, and language are part of an integrated network.

Identifying desirable difficulties in learning contexts and in learners themselves provides a rich approach to investigating that network. This article reflects our admiration for Alice Healy and discussions we had over the last year when last year when J.

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What causes the bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. What is learned under difficult conditions is hard to forget: Contextual interference effects in foreign vocabulary acquisition, retention, and transfer. Journal of Memory and Language.

Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: Evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. On the transfer of prior tests or study events to subsequent study.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. How recall facilitates subsequent recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Different rates of forgetting following study versus test trials. Why does trying, and failing, to predict to-be-learned responses enhance later recall of those responses? On the immediate test, participants were tested in the direction practiced during training. On the delayed test half the participants were tested in the practiced direction and half were tested in the other direction, and the results shown for the delayed test average over that manipulation data from.


Kaushanskaya exercises keys

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Kaushanskaya exercises keys
MODAL VERBS Exercise 1. Обратимся к науке, которую вы, как чиновник почтового ведомства, вероятно, любите. Participants assigned to the structural task condition were asked to judge whether the word was printed in uppercase or lowercase letters. On his trip round the world with Fleur he had often put his nose out and watched the dancing on the deck. If all humans have only 24 hours each day but some use more than one language, then each of the languages will have lower frequency relative to monolingual speakers. Обыкновенно вечерами хозяин уезжал куда-то.
Kaushanskaya exercises keys
HOW TO DUNK
Kaushanskaya exercises keys

Не забудьте дать кошке молока, у нее теперь котята! Я ходил по аллее и думал о вишневом варенье. Чехов I was walking through the alley and thinking about cherry jam. Articles with abstract nouns. We both appreciate simplicity.

In less than a week Copperwood knew the financial condition of Messrs. Waterman as well as they did, better, to a dollar. It is such weary, weary work. I had seldom heard my friend speak with such an intensity of feeling.

His footsteps were now heard striking upon the stony road at a distance of about twenty yards. We had wonderful weather. You must learn to face life seriously. However, the life of such striking monotony does not seem to depress him. May you be happy in the life you have chosen! I love to think of the time that must come some day when man will have conquered nature, and toilworn human race enter upon an era of peace.

She was panting now, and in her face was a terror which was inexplicable. His round blue eyes behind the spectacles were ghastly with terror.

I think in some curious way the horror which she felt for him was a transference of the horror which she felt for herself because he so strangely troubled her. She was brilliantly familiar with the literature, the tongues, art, history, physics, metaphysics, philosophy, and politics in which I include modern politics.

It was cold, bleak, biting weather. The weather was sunny and dry. Modern science is a wonderful thing. He was a steady, uninspired researcher in the properties of the liquid state of matter.

Their blue eyes became filled with gaiety and ferocity and joy, and their mouths with laughter. Jon laughed, and the sound of the laugh was hard. Then she gave a crisp, ironic, almost cheerful laugh...

On that fine day the poverty of the district she was entering seemed to her country-nurturedeyes intensely cheerless Galsworthy 25. Reason is the greatest discovery ever made by man. Yet it is the most disregarded and least used. That doesn't sound very exciting, but perhaps it's better than passion.

And the passion that held Strickland was a passion to create beauty. She looked the incarnation of supreme loveliness, the loveliness which was always revealing itself anew. The expression on her face hungry and hard and feverish that had the most peculiar effect upon Soames. She listened with, an expression impatient, strained and intent. At that age I had a very faulty view of geography. The poor fellow's face looked haggard with want: he had the aspect of a man who had not known what it was to live in comfort...

He longed for the comfort of his sister's society. He pines for kindness. She sighed for the air, the liberty, the quiet of the country. Miss Cherrell, I am going to do all I can to remove the unpleasant impression you have of me. I am your very humble servant, and I hope some day to have a chance to be something else to you. Then all four sat down and began to inspect Hunter and Calvin with an air of suspicion and curiosity.

He spoke with an air of someone who has got over with an unpleasant duty and can now get on to brighter matters. How quietly you live, John. I love the silence of this room and garden. At other times he would come and sit for long periods in her room in silence. What a noble thing courage is. The friendship which he had imposed from the beginning he now emphasised more than ever.

And when multitudes of men are hurt to death in wars I am driven to grief which borders on insanity. She could not only sing like a lark... What delightful weather we are having! Pray, don't talk to me about the weather, Mr. Whenever people talk to me about the weather, I always feel quite certain that they mean something else.

Such weather makes everything and everybody disgusting. When he let her go, she sank breathless into the chair, gazing at him with an expression of such terror that he put his hands over his face. And so, concerned in talk that touched not on the feelings within them, they reached Mount Street.

Owen saw t he figure of Edward at a distance of two or three hundred yards. Maylie took up her abode with her son and daughter-in-lawto enjoy during the tranquil remainder of her days the, greatest felicity that age and worth can know, the contemplation of happiness of those on whom the warmest affections and tenderest cares...

Art is the manifestation of emotion, and the emotion speaks the language that all may understand. Ada sat at the piano, Richard stood beside her.

She touched the notes so softly, and sang so low, that the wind, sighing away in the distant hills, was as audible as the music. Bob Sawyer adjusted his skates with the dexterity which to Mr.

Winkle was perfectly marvellous. He had not been stationary half a minute, when he heard his own name pronounced by a voice which he at once recognized as Mr. Tupman's, and looking upwards, he beheld a sight which filled him with surprise and pleasure.

She sat by the window reading. From her position she could see up the lane for a distance of at least a hundred yards. I can see the beauty and peace of this home; I think I have never been more at rest in my life than at this moment. Beside his bed, for the first time during a period of nearly twenty years, he fell down on his knees in a passionate outburst of feeling. It was a new fear, different from that which she had once confided in her own flat, yet grown from the same root.

The empty windows of the ruins were filled with a life of their own. Copperwood awakened to a sense of joy in life such as he fancied he had never experienced before.

Pickwick stood in the principal street of this illustrious town, and gazed with an air of curiosity not unmixed with interest, on the objects around him. Все народы земли хотят мира. All people in the world want peace. Мы никогда не забудем героизм тех, кто боролся против фашизма. We will never forget the heroism of those who fought against fascism. Я очень ценю в людях скромность и простоту. I appreciate modesty in people. Природа играла большую роль в твор- честве романтиков.

Nature plays an important role in the life of romanticists. Музыкант должен знать историю оперы. A musician should know opera history. С ней он мог говорить о литературе, об искусстве, о чем угодно, мог жаловаться ей на жизнь, на людей. He could talk with her about literature, art, and everything else; complain about life and people. Я хочу быть артисткой, я хочу славы, успехов, свободы.

Чехов I want to be an actress as I want success, fame and freedom. Обратимся к науке, которую вы, как чиновник почтового ведомства, вероятно, любите. География — наука почтальонов. Зачем я стереометрию учил, ежели ее в программе нет?

Чехов Why am I studying stereometry as it is not included in the curriculum? Я с детства люблю музыку. I loved music from my childhood. Он изучает английскую историю. He studies English history. Он изучает историю Англии. He studies the history of England. На расстоянии 20—30шагов мы увидели странную фигуру. We saw a strange figure at a distance of 20—30 feet.

Если вы плохо себя чувствуете, не выходите в такую погоду. Мой брат очень любит архитектуру и мечтает стать архитектором.

My brother likes architecture and wants to be an architect. Меня интересует история развития английского романа. I am interested in the history of the development of English novels. Articles with geographical names. After a tour in the Austrian Alps they had gone to Hotel Splendide at Montreux, in order to enjoy for a day or two the charms of Lake of Geneva.

Dusk was already falling on the noble curve of the Thames. I hear he's off to Central Africa. In Ivanhoe Walter Scott describes England of the Middle Ages. Capetown is in South Africa. In the heart of Central Asia lies Khoresm, a small fertile area in the sea of sand. We tried South America... We lasted three days in Australia... Michael looked quizzically at his parent. Did he quite understand the England of today?

Кордильеры находятся в Северной Америке The Cordilleras are located in North America. Берега Рейна очень живописны. The Reine banks are very picturesque. Эльбрус — очень красивая гора The Elbrus is a very beautiful mountain. Средиземное море находится между Европой, Азией и Африкой. The Mediterranean is located between Europe, Asia and Africa.

Венеция расположена на берегу Адриатического моря. Venice is located on the Adriatic Sea banks. Ливингстон погиб в Центральной Африке. Livingstone died in Central Africa. Articles with names of hotels, streets, ships, and newspapers. She nodded a command to the footman, and they drove off westward, down the Strand, and so into a little side street by Charing Cross. I am going to Folkestone to-day,and shall stay at the Metropole. They were excited because they had been dining with the editor of the Times , and had been given a glimpse of next day's paper.

She sat in her superb private drawing room at Hotel Cecil. The boys loved him because he told them that the Navy had borrowed him from the U. Army just in time to blow taps on the Maine as she was sinking, and he remained long after every- one including the captain had abandoned the ship.

He began to walk very rapidly up towards the Trafalgar Square. He went out and ate ices at the pastrycook's shop in Charing Cross; tried a new coat in the Pall Mall; and called for Captain Cannon, played eleven games at billiards with the captain, and returned to the Russell Square. The street was empty, unlighted save by the reflection from Grandlieu Street behind them... In 1905 the revolt broke out on the Potemkin, one of the battleships of the Black Sea Fleet. Yet, in the bright drawing room in Lord North Street, all he was thinking of...

Articles with nouns modified by proper nouns. I often go to the Pushkin Theatre. I am very fond of Pushkin's short tragedies. The Tretyakov gallery was founded nearly a century ago by Pavel Tretyakov. Tretyakov's devotion to art and his indefatigable efforts had magnificent results and furthered the development of Russian painting.

I am a medical student and have held the post of house surgeon at one of London hospitals for some time. Fox apartment had a spacious old-fashionedfeeling. Towards the end of the year 1913 several young students living in Moscow founded a small group known as the Students' Drama Studio.

It was from that group that the Vakhtangov Theatre sprang. Vakhtangov was a tireless innovator. Some of Vakhtangov's pupils became capable producers. The sets of furniture were imitations of one of Louis periods. The Pulkovo Observatory is over a hundred years old. The chin of the founder of the Forsyte clan was settled comfortably between the widely separated points of an old-fashionedcollar. He had known all the pretty Montjoy sisters scattered over the Society, but of them all Diana was the youngest, the prettiest, most tasteful and wittiest...

Articles with set expressions. I trust you to tell me the bare truth, whatever it is. The maid, looking to right and left, spoke in a low and hurried voice. On his trip round the world with Fleur he had often put his nose out and watched the dancing on the deck.

He decided that he would not at present explain to her who he was. I saw a good deal of him during the war. He has taken his death very much to heart indeed. What did her education and her accomplishments amount to?

She could keep house. They seemed perfectly at their ease, by no means in a hurry. Somebody important must have been arriving from Europe by air... Am I dealing, young people, with a case of love at first sight? We've had some tea already on board the yacht. Rosa was well aware that she had never taken the trouble to get to know Annette.

You will go to the sea and forget all about me in a month. He was about to start on a long journey, a difficult one, by sea, and no soul would know where he was gone. It is a pleasure to see you. He held a very guarded conversation with her on his way home, for fear that she would take additional offence.

Argument was out of the question. On the other hand, if he was beaten he took it with complete good humour. He is beginning to lose heart, they say. She burned like a fire from head to foot. I got into conversation with him by chance at a concert. She's taken quite a fancy to you, Ridgeon. The furniture was all sent round by water. I returned at once, and found Ada sitting at work by the fireside. He played the flute.

Somewhere great many men were singing. He was chronically in debt... The woman I fixed my eye on was the woman who kept the house for me at my cottage. It is a pity to worry her if she has a talent for uneasiness. He has given permission to go up and see her there. Behind the house was a large garden, and in summer, the pupils almost lived out of doors. The rain had stopped, and we went on foot to Ebury Street. They started at dawn, and the boy I sent with them didn't come back till next day.

All of a sudden, his face had become stony. It seems only the other day since I took you down to school at Slough Galsworthy 36. Byron Waller could play a violin. Он всегда говорит очень тихо. He spoke in a low voice. На днях я слу- чайно встретила Нину. I met Nina accidentally the other day. Если вы ей так ответите, она придет в ярость. По правде говоря, я так и не поняла, почему она обиделась.

Она читает с утра до ночи. She reads from morning till night. Я люблю путешествовать морем. I like travelling by sea. Вы по ошибке принесли не тот журнал. You brought the wrong magazine by mistake. Мы всегда заставали его за работой. We always found him at work. Приходите ко мне завтра. Come tomorrow to see me. Он даже не потрудился встретить нас на вокзале. He had never taken the trouble to meet us at the station. Жаль, что вы не можете пойти с нами в театр.

Мы уже можем читать Диккенса и Теккерея в оригинале. We can read Dickens and Thackeray in the original. Мой брат очень хорошо играет на скрипке. My brother can play the violin very well. Такую интересную книгу приятно перечитать. It is a pleasure to read such an interesting book. Это слишком длинный роман, чтобы его можно было про- честь в два дня.

This novel is too long to read it in two days. Это такая же светлая каюта, как та. This cabin is as light as that one. Я не могу ответить на такой странный вопрос. Это довольно интересная статья. This is a rather interesting article. Как вы могли упустить такой редкий случай? How could you have missed such a thing? What a silly expression! Оба письма были отправлены утром.

Both letters were sent in the morning. All the papers are signed. Это слишком сложная проблема, чтобы ее можно было разрешить в такое короткое вре- мя. This is such a difficult problem to solve in such a short time. Я не знала, что собака в комнате. Я не знала, что в комнате есть собака. Девушка подошла к окну. The girl came up to the window. К окну подошла девушка. A girl went to the window. Day, night, morning, evening.

Outside it was night. It was a warm summer night. The night outside seemed very quiet. It was a foggy evening in November. During the evening we played innumerable games of piquet... It was evening, and he was walking across the school grounds on his way home. He wondered what hour it was. The sun seemed to indicate late morning... I think it's going to be a fine morning, after all. The morning was cold and sharp and sunny. It is early morning.

We are going to have an ideal night. The night being sharp and frosty, we trembled from head to foot. It was early in the afternoon. The night was a windy one, with broken clouds drifting swiftly across the face of a three-quartermoon.

Night came and he sent his sadness into his sleep. I was up at six in the morning. She has had a bad night, probably a rather delirious night. The machines at the factory were in perpetual motion day and night. Arthur did not pass a sleepless night; he slept long and well, for sleep comes to the perplexed, if the perplexed are only weary enough.

It was about ten o'clock at night. The fine September afternoon was dying fast. I persuaded him to stay a night with me, and I put him into my own bed. It was the morning after Roger had talked to me in the Park, and Margaret and I were sitting at breakfast.

Day was by this time approaching; the West was dim, the East beginning to gleam. On a bright January morning the telephones kept ringing in my office. I cannot describe to you the intense silence of the night. I shall not forget the evening I spent with him. I had not intended to stay more than an hour, but he insisted that I should spend a night. He painted and he read, and in the evening, when it was dark, they sat together on the veranda, smoking and looking at the night.

It was as lovely morning as one could desire. It was a glorious night. The moon had sunk, and left the quiet earth alone with the stars. Nell dropped a curtsey, and told him they were poor travellers who sought a shelter for the night. The schoolmaster told them that they were welcome to remain under his roof till morning. Every day I was up at dawn, clearing, planting, working on my house, and at night when I threw myself on my bed it was to sleep like a log till morning.

Утро было холодное и ветреное. The morning was cold and windy. Был теплый летний вечер. It was a warm summer evening. Настала ночь, и путешественники решили отдохнуть. It was night and the travelers decided to rest. Он пишет с утра до ночи. He writes from morning to night. Он переночевал у приятеля. Он провел бессонную ночь и был очень бледен. He spent a sleepless night and was very pale. Приятно поехать за город в ясный летний день.

It is a pleasure to spend a clear summer day in the country. И днем и ночью он думал об одном. He was thinking about this day and night. Было прекрасное утро — солнечное и тихое. It was a beautiful morning — sunny and quiet. Было раннее утро, и все в доме еще спали. It was an early morning and everybody was still sleeping. It was early spring. Была дождливая, холодная осень. It was a cold and rainy autumn. Осень была исключительно теплая; стояла ясная, солнечная погода.

It was a rather warm autumn; the weather was clear and sunny. Мое любимое время года — лето. My favorite season is summer. Лето 1941 года было очень жаркое. The summer of 1941 was very hot. Она легла спать в три часа и встала с головной болью. She went to bed at 3 and woke up with a headache.

Почему вы так поздно вернулись из города? Why did you return so late from the city? Женщина подошла к кровати и накрыла ребен- ка одеялом. The woman came up to the bed and covered the child.

Она плохо себя чувствовала и провела весь день в постели. She felt bad and spent the day in bed. Сегодня мне надо пойти в школу на родительское собрание. Я провела все лето в городе.

I spent the whole summer in the city. Когда сестра окончила школу, она поступила в консерваторию. When my sister finished school, she entered the conservatory. Мы провели несколько дней в маленьком городке на Кавказе. We spent a few days in a small town in the Caucasus. Мы живем на даче, но часто приезжаем в город. We live in the countryside, but often come to the city. Генри был обвинен в краже, и, хотя он был невиновен, его посадили в тюрьму. Он сидел в тюрьме три года. He was in prison for three years.

Мы позавтракали в восемь часов. We had breakfast at 8. Завтрак состоял из хлеба с маслом, сыра и кофе. The breakfast included bread with butter, cheese and coffee. Не опаздывайте к обеду. Обед еще не готов. Dinner is not ready yet. Наши знакомые пригласили нас на обед. Our friends invited us to dinner. For single , as well as compound , unless single , now that compound , and single , neither...

The stranger had not gone far, so he made after him to ask the name. Be quick, or it may be too late. Septimus Small let fall no word, neither did she question June about him. The river was not high, so there was not more than a two or three mile current. It seemed to him that he could contrive to secure for her the full benefit of both his life insurance and his fire insurance... Karl is solid and extremely certain of himself, while Joseph on the other hand, though no less certain of himself, is a good deal less solid.

He could see no one, and he began to believe that either his instinct had deceived him, or else that the shadowing was over. But for a long time we did not see any lights, nor did we see the shore, but rowed steadily in the dark riding with the waves. She stood quite silent while Butler appealed to her.

Since Miss Wilfer rejected me, I have never again urged my suit. Whenever I looked at Susan she gave me a frank full-heartedsmile. So the tiny woman closed the shutter of the cottage window and fastened the door, and trembling from head to root for fear that any one should suspect her, opened a very secret place, and showed the Princess a shadow. And yet tired though he was after his three long days, Soames dreaded the moment when the car should stop.

I extinguished my taper, locked my bureau, and left her, since she would not leave me. Once they reached the open country the car leapt forward like a mad thing. He was a tall fellow with a very wide mouth and prematurely bald in front, so that he appeared to have a colossal forehead. The reference was as plain as it was unexpected. Early as he was, another man was there before him.

We're as we're made. They were all smiling widely at me as I came toward them. He was a fattish, worried, untidy man, always looking as if he had slept in the expensive clothes he wore. Pancks has come down into the Yard tonight, on purpose that you should hear him.

The most I can say now is that it is very cold in San Francisco, and I am freezing. Give me your promise that this shall be done. In that small room he seemed even bigger than I remembered him.

Whatever I intend to do I'll do without advice from the outside. Breakfast was not yet over before the men came to put up the marquee. He prized the pencil, because it had been a gift from his mother. As soon as he had gone, I looked at the clock. To worry simple , to precipitate simple , to forbid derived , to retire derived , to retell derived , to do away composite , to whitewash compound , to whiten derived , to ascend derived , to apologize derived , to engage simple , to enfold derived , to give in composite , to decompose derived , to translate simple , to transport simple , to browbeat compound , to subscribe derived , to subordinate derived , to run away composite , to underestimate derived , to backbite compound , to mislead derived , to forget simple , to succeed simple , to disobey derived , to take off composite , to overrun derived , to satisfy simple , to recede derived , to come in composite , to resign derived , to superintend derived , to descend derived , to blackmail compound , to put up composite , to unbind derived , to win simple , to counteract derived , to go on composite , to forecast compound , to befriend derived , to go away composite , to lie simple , to predispose derived.

She went notional into the drawing-roomand lighted notional the fire; then, picking up the cushions, one by one, that Mary had auxiliary disposed notional so carefully, she threw notional them back onto the chairs and the couches.

That made link all the difference; the room came link alive at once. As she was link about to throw the last one she surprised notional herself by suddenly hugging it to her, passionately, passionately.

But it did auxiliary not put notional out the fire in her bosom. Oh, on the contrary! The windows of the drawing-room opened notional onto a balcony overlooking the garden. At the far end, against the wall, there was link a tall, slender pear tree in fullest, richest bloom; it stood notional perfect, as though becalmed against the jade-greensky.

Bertha couldn't modal help notional feeling, even from this distance, that it had notional not a single bud or a faded petal. Down below, in the garden beds, the red and yellow tulips, heavy with flowers, seemed link to lean upon the dusk. A grey cat, dragging its belly, crept notional across the lawn, and a black one, its shadow, trailed after. The sight of them, so intent and quick, gave notional Bertha a curious shiver. Really — really — she had notional everything. She was link young.

Harry and she were link as much in love as ever, and they got notional on together splendidly. She had notional an adorable baby. They didn't auxiliary have notional to worry about money. They had notional this absolutely satisfactory house and garden. State whether they are transitive or intransitive. The door opened intransitive and a thick set heavy-lookingyoung man entered. Fleur did not answer. The soldiers pushed transitive the foreign workers into groups and led transitive them off.

While she stood intransitive hesitating, the door opened intransitive , and an old man came transitive forth shading a candle with one hand. Fleur looked transitive at her watch and rose. He was waiting transitive for us... I did not feel intransitive , at first, that I knew transitive him as well as he knew transitive me, because he had never come transitive to our house since the night I was born intransitive , and naturally he had transitive the advantage of me.

Дверь открылась, и вошел коренастый молодой человек крепкого телосло- жения. The door opened, and a thick set heavy-lookingyoung man entered... Она остановилась на мгновение, глядя на него и его мать Fleur did not answer. She stood for a moment looking at him and his mother. Солдаты согнали иностранных рабочих в группы и вывели их прочь. The soldiers pushed the foreign workers into groups and led them off.

Пока она стояла в замешательстве, дверь от- ворилась, и появился пожилой мужчина, прикрывая свечу рукой. While she stood hesitating, the door opened, and an old man came forth shading a candle with one hand. Флер взглянула на свои часы и встала. Fleur looked at her watch and rose.

Он ждал нас в трактире; и спросил меня, словно старый знакомый, как я себя чувствую. Вначале у меня было чувство, что я не знаю его, так же, как и он не знает меня, потому что он никогда не приходил в наш дом, начиная с той ночи, когда я родился.

И, конечно, у него было преимущество передо мной. He was waiting for us... I did not feel, at first, that I knew him as well as he knew me, because he had never come to our house since the night I was born, and naturally he had the advantage of me. Future Simple or Present Simple.

Вы опоздаете на поезд, если не возьмете такси. Я не уйду, пока вы не вернетесь. Мне хотелось бы узнать, когда ваша сестра вернется из Ленинграда.

I would like to know when your sister will return from St. Мне хотелось бы узнать точный день, когда ваша сестра вернется из Ленинграда. Я не могу с уверенно- стью сказать, будет ли он на собрании, но если он придет, то обязательно выступит в прениях.

Пока дамы будут у себя в комнатах, я спущусь вниз и постараюсь раздобыть тебе что-нибудьпоесть. Present Simple or Present Continuous 1. He говорите так громко. Я вас хорошо слышу. It is getting dark. Я уезжаю в Москву на будущей неделе. I am going to Moscow next week. Когда бы я ни пришла к вам, вы всегда ра- ботаете. Whenever I come to you, you are always working. Where is your brother?

He is seeing his friend off. The boat is arriving tomorrow. Somebody is coming here. Не беспокойте его, когда он работает. Мой брат завтра уезжает в Москву. My brother is going to Moscow tomorrow. Вы чувствуете себя лучше сегодня? Do you feel better today? Past Simple or Past Continuous 1. Когда Давид приехал, Хэм уже ждал его. When David arrived, Ham was waiting for him. Когда декан вошел в аудиторию, тов. When the dean entered the room, Petrov was reading the report.

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